Water in a capillary having a radius of 0.01 µm will freeze at -5.4 °C. Freezing in wet soil occurs over a zone rather than at a discrete plane.
Heat propagates as a wave at a finite speed - Theory of heat transfer
The heat required to evaporize water is approximately 556 cal/kg (1000 Btu/lb0).
The most prominent use of dialysis membranes is in the treatment of end-stage renal disease. In this process, low and intermediate molecular weight waste products are removed from the blood of a patient.
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